Plastic Fuel Tanks Dominate the Global Automotive Market

Traditional automotive fuel tanks were made of steel. Since theGerman Volkswagen, BASF and Kautex jointly developed the world's firstautomotive plastic fuel tank and successfully used in Porsche in 1960s, plasticfuel tank has experienced a rapid development, due to its characteristics ofsafer, corrosion-resistant and longer service life than traditional metal fueltanks, the development trend of lightweight cars also contributed to thisblossom. Into the 21st century, the automotive plastic fuel tank usage ofEurope and the United States and other developed countries has reached over 90%.Meanwhile, in China, the metal fuel tank is still used in commercial vehicles,the plastic fuel tank is mainly used in passenger cars, the usage of plasticfuel tank has reached more than 80%. According to the recently published < Global Automotive Plastic Fuel Tank Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022> by Global Info Research, the current global plastic fuel tank market is very concentrated,the world's top five companies have occupied more than 80% of the market sharein 2016. Internationally renowned fuel tank enterprises are mainly INERGY,Kautex, TI AUTOMOTIVE, and YACHIYO, the main Chinese vendors are YAPP, JiangsuSuguang and so on. With the implementation of the new standard of automotive fueleconomy, automotive lightweight will become one of the key directions of thedevelopment of automotive technology in a long time. So the development ofplastic fuel tank completely coincides with the direction of automotivetechnology. Plastic fuel tanks still have a larger and larger development space.According to Global Info Research’s forecast, the global sales of plastic fuel tank willreach 100 million in the end of 2022.    

2017 China shared Bicycle Sharing market size will reach 10.28 billion yuan

Global Info Research Center recently published Chinese Bike-Share Market Research Report 2017, data showing that Chinese total Bike-Share running volume is more than 4 million units by mid-March, 2017. As top 4 first-tier cities in China, the economics of Beijing-Shanghai-Guangzhou-Shenzhen is developing rapidly, willing to try some new things meanwhile the number of stationed Bike-Share platforms in the four cities is more than other cities, and the market share of running Bike-Share is already exceeding 70%. Since the second half year in 2016, the Bike-Share platforms are putting more bikes in many cities of China to increase the user number. Report showing that, the Bike-Share market size in 2016 reached 1.23 billion RMB and forecast that the market size will reach 10.28 billion USD, with a growth rate 735.8%. The Bike-Share user number will keep ultra-fast growth rate in 2017, reaching 209 million. Data showing, in 2016, China Bike-Share market size reached 1.23 billion RMB and forecast that the market size will reach 10.28 billion USD, with a growth rate 735.8%; the user volume is 28 million, and forecast reaching 209 million in 2017, with a growth rate 646.4%, China Bike-Share market will still keep ultra-rapid growth rate. In terms of city coverage rate of China Bike-Share market, Ofo is No.1. The analyst from Global Info Research center thinks that, seeking the rapid market expansion is still one important competitive strategy for Bike-Share in 2017. In terms of bikes running number of bike-share platforms, Ofo and MoBike are comparable. MoBike claims that they set 100 thousands units bikes per city as one goal, other platforms, such as Bluegogo, 1-Step, started up relatively late, the bikes putting on market is relative less. The analyst from Global Info Research center thinks, rapid putting promotes the users number of platforms while rapid influx may bring great pressure on city management. In the future, the platforms will further increase the bikes putting number in second-tier cities on basis of increasing the putting number in first-tier cities. Since 2017, Bike-Share platforms competition further aggravated. Many platforms, such as Ofo, and MoBike begins the price competition. They adopt “Limited Free Ride”, “Charge and Cash Back” successively etc patterns to attract the users to try Bike-Share out, improve use frequency of Bike-Share users and further cultivate users using habits. The analyst of Global Info Research center thinks, price competition will accelerate phase-out a batch of platforms whose capital reserves are not strong enough. Global Info Research ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Catalyst mimics the z-scheme of photosynthesis

A team of chemists from the University of Kentucky and the Institute of Physics Research of Mar del Plata in Argentina has just reported a way to trigger a fundamental step in the mechanism of photosynthesis, providing a process with great potential for developing new technology to reduce carbon dioxide levels. Led by Marcelo Guzman, an associate professor of chemistry in the UK College of Arts and Sciences, and Ruixin Zhou, a doctoral student working with Guzman, the researchers used a synthetic nanomaterial that combines the highly reducing power of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) with a coating of oxidizing titanium dioxide (TiO2) that prevents the loss of copper (I) ion in the catalyst. The catalyst made of Cu2O/TiO2 has the unique ability to transfer electrons for reducing the atmospheric greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) while simultaneously breaking the molecule of water (H2O). The unique feature of this catalyst for electron transfer mimics the so called "Z-scheme" mechanism from photosynthesis. Published in Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, the researchers demonstrated that if the catalyst is exposed to sunlight, electrons are transferred to CO2 in a process that resembles the way photosystems 1 and 2 operate in nature. "Developing the materials that can be combined to reduce CO2 through a direct Z-scheme mechanism with sunlight is an important problem," said Zhou. "However, it is even more difficult to demonstrate the process actually works. From this scientific viewpoint, the research is contributing to advance feature technology for carbon sequestration." This is a task that many scientists have been pursuing for a long time but the challenge is to prove that both components of the catalyst interact to enable the electronic properties of a Z-scheme mechanism. Although a variety of materials may be used, the key aspect of this research is that the catalyst is not made of scarce and very expensive elements such as rhenium and iridium to drive the reactions with sunlight energy reaching the Earth's surface. The catalyst employed corrosion resistant TiO2 to apply a white protective coating to octahedral particles of red Cu2O. The team designed a series of experiments to test out the hypothesis that the catalyst operates through a Z-scheme instead of using a double-charge transfer mechanism. The measured carbon monoxide (CO) production from CO2 reduction, the identification of hydroxyl radical (HO* ) intermediate from H2O oxidation en route to form oxygen (O2), and the characterized electronic and optical properties of the catalyst and individual components verified the proposed Z-scheme was operational. The next goal of the research is to improve the approach by exploring a series of different catalysts and identify the most efficient one to transform CO2 into chemical fuels such as methane. This way, new technology will be created to supply clean and affordable alternative energy sources and to address the problem of continuous consumption of fossil fuels and rising levels of greenhouse gases. Story Source: Materials provided by University of Kentucky. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) market will reach $ 140 million by 2022

The global Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) market will reach $140 million by 2022, increasing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of nearly 6%, according to Global Info Research. Specifically, the powder of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) will experience moderate growth through 2022 and account for the largest share of the overall market. In 2016, for example, they represented 75% of all the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) market. Asia Pacific is dominating the global Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) market, with a consumption market share nearly 34% in 2016. Following Asia-Pacific, North America is the second largest consumption place with the consumption market share of 25% in 2016. And South America in the third largest consumption region with the consumption market share of 10%. The data of Global Info Research’s < Global Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Market by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022> shows that, the application of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is divided into EGF Cream, EGF Lotion, EGF Mask and others. The most of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is EGF Cream, and the market share of that is about 45% in 2016. Market competition is not intense. Pavay, Radiant, BIO-FD&C, LipoTrue, BIOEFFECT, Ytkangdaer, etc. are the leaders of the industry, with high-end customers in the industry.   Global Info Research ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Sustainable ethanol from carbon dioxide? A possible path

Most cars and trucks in the United States run on a blend of 90 percent gasoline and 10 percent ethanol, a renewable fuel made primarily from fermented corn. But to produce the 14 billion gallons of ethanol consumed annually by American drivers requires millions of acres of farmland. A recent discovery by Stanford University scientists could lead to a new, more sustainable way to make ethanol without corn or other crops. This promising technology has three basic components: water, carbon dioxide and electricity delivered through a copper catalyst. The results are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). "One of our long-range goals is to produce renewable ethanol in a way that doesn't impact the global food supply," said study principal investigator Thomas Jaramillo, an associate professor of chemical engineering at Stanford and of photon science at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Scientists would like to design copper catalysts that selectively convert carbon dioxide into higher-value chemicals and fuels, like ethanol and propanol, with few or no byproducts. But first they need a clear understanding of how these catalysts actually work. That's where the recent findings come in. Copper crystals For the PNAS study, the Stanford team chose three samples of crystalline copper, known as copper (100), copper (111) and copper (751). Scientists use these numbers to describe the surface geometries of single crystals. "Copper (100), (111) and (751) look virtually identical but have major differences in the way their atoms are arranged on the surface," said Christopher Hahn, an associate staff scientist at SLAC and co-lead lead author of the study. "The essence of our work is to understand how these different facets of copper affect electrocatalytic performance." In previous studies, scientists had created single-crystal copper electrodes just 1-square millimeter in size. "With such a small crystal, it's hard to identify and quantify the molecules that are produced on the surface," Hahn explained. "This leads to difficulties in understanding the chemical reactions, so our goal was to make larger copper electrodes with the surface quality of a single crystal." To create bigger samples, Hahn and his co-workers at SLAC developed a novel way to grow single crystal-like copper on top of large wafers of silicon and sapphire. "What Chris did was amazing," Jaramillo said. "He made films of copper (100), (111) and (751) with 6-square centimeter surfaces. That's 600 times bigger than typical single crystals. Catalytic performance To compare electrocatalytic performance, the researchers placed the three large electrodes in water, exposed them to carbon dioxide gas and applied a potential to generate an electric current. The results were clear. When a specific voltage was applied, the electrodes made of copper (751) were far more selective to liquid products, such as ethanol and propanol, than those made of copper (100) or (111). The explanation may lie in the different ways that copper atoms are aligned on the three surfaces. "In copper (100) and (111), the surface atoms are packed close together, like a square grid and a honeycomb, respectively" Hahn said. "As a result, each atom is bonded to many other atoms around it, and that tends to make the surface more inert." But in copper (751), the surface atoms are further apart. "An atom of copper (751) only has two nearest neighbors," Hahn said. "But an atom that isn't bonded to other atoms is quite unhappy, and that makes it want to bind stronger to incoming reactants like carbon dioxide. We believe this is one of the key factors that lead to better selectivity to higher-value products, like ethanol and propanol." Ultimately, the Stanford team would like to develop a technology capable of selectively producing carbon-neutral fuels and chemicals at an industrial scale. "The eye on the prize is to create better catalysts that have game-changing potential by taking carbon dioxide as a feedstock and converting it into much more valuable products using renewable electricity or sunlight directly," Jaramillo said. "We plan to use this method on nickel and other metals to further understand the chemistry at the surface. We think this study is an important piece of the puzzle and will open up whole new avenues of research for the community." Jaramillo also serves at deputy director of the SUNCAT Center for Interface Science and Catalysis, a partnership of the Stanford School of Engineering and SLAC. The study was also written by co-lead author Toru Hatsukade, Drew Higgins and Stephanie Nitopi at Stanford; Youn-Geun Kim at SLAC; and Jack Baricuatro and Manuel Soriaga at the California Institute of Technology. Story Source: Materials provided by Stanford University. Original written by Mark Shwartz. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Chemistry of sea spray particles linked for first time to formation process

A team of researchers led by the University of California San Diego has identified for the first time what drives the observed differences in the chemical make-up of sea spray particles ejected from the ocean by breaking waves. The discovery could enable researchers to better understand how ocean chemistry and physics directly influence cloud formation processes. The improved understanding could make climate models more accurate, especially since clouds are the hardest variable to portray in current simulations. Kimberly Prather, Distinguished Chair in Atmospheric Chemistry and a faculty member in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego, led the National Science Foundation-supported study. She said its key breakthrough involved showing that the drops sent airborne by breaking waves take on different chemical characteristics depending on the physical forces induced by the waves. "It's the first time anyone has shown that drops from seawater have different composition due to the production mechanism," said Prather. "We are uncovering how ocean biology influences the physical production processes creating sea spray aerosol. Previous studies have focused on the processes involved in the physical production of sea sprays but our studies demonstrated that chemistry is at the heart of many ocean-atmosphere transfer processes that have profound impacts on the composition of our atmosphere as well as clouds and climate." Some sea spray aerosols are "film" drops that are laden with microbes or organic material that collects on the ocean surface. They form when bubbles at the ocean surface rupture. Researchers had largely assumed that all aerosols smaller than a micron in size were of this variety. Prather and other researchers showed, however, that there are other cloud-forming particles derived from "jet" drops that are predominantly comprised of very different chemical species including sea salt, microbes, and other biological species. These new drops are ejected in the aftermath of bubbles popping. These two types of aerosols have different capabilities for forming ice crystals in clouds, meaning that whether a cloud actually produces no precipitation, rain, or snow can be determined by the type of microbes and associated biomolecules being ejected from the ocean. More importantly, the presence of a large bloom of phytoplankton, as happens during red tide events, alters the ratio of film to jet drops, meaning biological processes can lead to profound changes in sea spray chemistry and ultimately cloud formation. The study, "The role of jet and film drops in controlling the mixing state of submicron sea spray aerosol particles," appears June 19 in early editions of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The researchers found that jet-produced particles can make up nearly half the total number of submicron sea spray aerosols that contribute to cloud formation. To reach this conclusion, researchers induced phytoplankton blooms in natural seawater pumped into wave-generating tanks at a Scripps laboratory. The conditions mimicked those in the ocean that produce sea spray. The scientists differentiated the film from jet drops as they rose in the air above the waves by observing their different electric charges. Jet sea spray aerosols have a greater charge than film aerosols. The findings are the latest to come from researchers at UC San Diego on one of the most mysterious frontiers of climate: how aerosols produced on land and at sea -- whether sea salt, organic material, dust, or pollution particles -- determine if clouds form and whether those clouds can produce precipitation. Prather, who pioneered methods to analyze the chemical composition of airborne particles, is the director of the Center for Aerosol Impacts on Chemistry of the Environment (CAICE) at UC San Diego where the work was performed. In 2013, the National Science Foundation named CAICE an NSF Center for Chemical Innovation, one of nine such centers in the United States. Co-authors of the study represented a range of disciplines from biochemistry to marine microbiology. Scripps oceanographers Grant Deane and Dale Stokes contributed to the study and in follow-on work will attempt to see if they can determine the composition of sea surface aerosol mixes by measuring how long bubble-filled ocean whitecaps last. Deane said the feat of the study likely could not have been achieved by any one of the researchers working alone, making it a model for how complex environmental research is done. "It's a truly collaborative work among chemists, biologists, and physical oceanographers," Deane said. "This is the way this kind of work has to be done." Globalinforesearch Story Source: Materials provided by University of California - San Diego. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

The global Fatty Amine market is valued at USD 1847.16 million in 2016

The industry is highly fragmented in terms of products, end uses and suppliers, but its markets can broadly be categorized as water treatment, agro-chemicals, oilfield chemicals, textile chemistry, asphalt additives, anti-caking, etc.   At present, the production of fatty amine distributed evenly in Europe, USA, China and Japan. China is the largest production country of fatty amine in the world in the past few years and it will keep the same position in the next few years.     Akzo Nobel, Solvay, Kao Chem, Global Amines and P&G Chem are the key suppliers in the global fatty amine market. Top five took up about 50% of the global market in 2015.   According to Market Research Institute GlobalInfoResearch data analysis,The global Fatty Amine market is valued at USD 1847.16 million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD 2315.86 million by the end of 2023, growing at a Growth Rate of 3.28% between 2016 and 2023.  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Nickel for thought: Compound shows potential for high-temperature superconductivity

A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. The team successfully synthesized single crystals of a metallic trilayer nickelate compound, a feat the researchers believe to be a first. "It's poised for superconductivity in a way not found in other nickel oxides. We're very hopeful that all we have to do now is find the right electron concentration." This nickel oxide compound does not superconduct, said John Mitchell, an Argonne Distinguished Fellow and associate director of the laboratory's Materials Science Division, who led the project, which combined crystal growth, X-ray spectroscopy, and computational theory. But, he added, "It's poised for superconductivity in a way not found in other nickel oxides. We're very hopeful that all we have to do now is find the right electron concentration." Mitchell and seven co-authors announced their results in this week's issue of Nature Physics. Superconducting materials are technologically important because electricity flows through them without resistance. High-temperature superconductors could lead to faster, more efficient electronic devices, grids that can transmit power without energy loss and ultra-fast levitating trains that ride frictionless magnets instead of rails. Only low-temperature superconductivity seemed possible before 1986, but materials that superconduct at low temperatures are impractical because they must first be cooled to hundreds of degrees below zero. In 1986, however, discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in copper oxide compounds called cuprates engendered new technological potential for the phenomenon. But after three decades of ensuing research, exactly how cuprate superconductivity works remains a defining problem in the field. One approach to solving this problem has been to study compounds that have similar crystal, magnetic and electronic structures to the cuprates. Nickel-based oxides -- nickelates -- have long been considered as potential cuprate analogs because the element sits immediately adjacent to copper in the periodic table. Thus far, Mitchell noted, "That's been an unsuccessful quest." As he and his co-authors noted in their Nature Physics paper, "None of these analogs have been superconducting, and few are even metallic." The nickelate that the Argonne team has created is a quasi-two-dimensional trilayer compound, meaning that it consists of three layers of nickel oxide that are separated by spacer layers of praseodymium oxide. "Thus it looks more two-dimensional than three-dimensional, structurally and electronically," Mitchell said. This nickelate and a compound containing lanthanum rather than praseodymium both share the quasi-two-dimensional trilayer structure. But the lanthanum analog is non-metallic and adopts a so-called "charge-stripe" phase, an electronic property that makes the material an insulator, the opposite of a superconductor. "For some yet-unknown reason, the praseodymium system does not form these stripes," Mitchell said. "It remains metallic and so is certainly the more likely candidate for superconductivity." Argonne is one of a few laboratories in the world where the compound could be created. The Materials Science Division's high-pressure optical-image floating zone furnace has special capabilities. It can attain pressures of 150 atmospheres (equivalent to the crushing pressures found at oceanic depths of nearly 5,000 feet) and temperatures of approximately 2,000 degrees Celsius (more than 3,600 degrees Fahrenheit), conditions needed to grow the crystals. "We didn't know for sure we could make these materials," said Argonne postdoctoral researcher Junjie Zhang, the first author on the study. But indeed, they managed to grow the crystals measuring a few millimeters in diameter (a small fraction of an inch). The research team verified that the electronic structure of the nickelate resembles that of cuprate materials by taking X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements at the Advanced Photon Source, a DOE Office of Science User Facility, and by performing density functional theory calculations. Materials scientists use density functional theory to investigate the electronic properties of condensed matter systems. "I've spent my entire career not making high-temperature superconductors," Mitchell joked. But that could change in the next phase of his team's research: attempting to induce superconductivity in their nickelate material using a chemical process called electron doping, in which impurities are deliberately added to a material to influence its properties.   Story Source:   Materials provided by DOE/Argonne National Laboratory. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
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