Smoking has a very broad, long-lasting impact on the human genome

Smoking leaves its "footprint" on the human genome in the form of DNA methylation, a process by which cells control gene activity, according to new research in Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, an American Heart Association journal. The new findings suggest that DNA methylation could be an important sign that reveals an individual's smoking history, and could provide researchers with potential targets for new therapies. "These results are important because methylation, as one of the mechanisms of the regulation of gene expression, affects what genes are turned on, which has implications for the development of smoking-related diseases," said Stephanie J. London, M.D., Dr.P.H., last author and deputy chief of the Epidemiology Branch at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. "Equally important is our finding that even after someone stops smoking, we still see the effects of smoking on their DNA." Smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide, despite a decline in smoking in many countries as a result of smoking cessation campaigns and legislative action. Even decades after stopping, former smokers are at long-term risk of developing diseases including some cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and stroke. While the molecular mechanisms responsible for these long-term effects remain poorly understood, previous studies linking DNA methylation sites to genes involved with coronary heart disease and pulmonary disease suggest it may play an important role. Researchers conducted a meta-analysis of DNA methylation sites across the human genome using blood samples taken from nearly 16,000 participants from 16 groups of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genetic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium, including a group of the Framingham Heart Study that has been followed by researchers since 1971. The researchers compared DNA methylation sites in current and former smokers to those who never smoked. They found: Smoking-associated DNA methylation sites were associated with more than 7,000 genes, or one-third of known human genes. For people who stopped smoking, the majority of DNA methylation sites returned to levels seen in never smokers within five years of quitting smoking. However, some DNA methylation sites persisted even after 30 years of quitting. The most statistically significant methylation sites were linked to genes enriched for association with numerous diseases caused by cigarette smoking, such as cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. The researchers suggest that some of these long-lasting methylation sites may be marking genes potentially important for former smokers who are still at increased risk of developing certain diseases. The discovery of smoking-related DNA methylation sites raises the possibility of developing biomarkers to evaluate a patient's smoking history, as well as potentially developing new treatments targeted toward these methylation sites. The main analysis was not designed to examine effects over long periods of time. The researchers note, that this is the largest examination of the effects of smoking on DNA methylation. "Our study has found compelling evidence that smoking has a long-lasting impact on our molecular machinery, an impact that can last more than 30 years," said Roby Joehanes Ph.D. of Hebrew SeniorLife, first author and an instructor at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. "The encouraging news is that once you stop smoking, the majority of DNA methylation signals return to never smoker levels after five years, which means your body is trying to heal itself of the harmful impacts of tobacco smoking." Source:American Heart Association  

Possible clouds on Pluto, next target is reddish

The next target for NASA's New Horizons mission -- which made a historic flight past Pluto in July 2015 -- apparently bears a colorful resemblance to its famous, main destination. Hubble Space Telescope data suggests that 2014 MU69, a small Kuiper Belt object (KBO) about a billion miles (1.6 billion kilometers) beyond Pluto, is as red, if not redder, than Pluto. This is the first hint at the surface properties of the far flung object that New Horizons will survey on Jan. 1, 2019. Mission scientists are discussing this and other Pluto and Kuiper Belt findings this week at the American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) and European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) in Pasadena, California. "We're excited about the exploration ahead for New Horizons, and also about what we are still discovering from Pluto flyby data," said Alan Stern, principal investigator from Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. "Now, with our spacecraft transmitting the last of its data from last summer's flight through the Pluto system, we know that the next great exploration of Pluto will require another mission to be sent there." Stern said that Pluto's complex, layered atmosphere is hazy and appears to be mostly free of clouds, but the team has spied a handful of potential clouds in images taken with New Horizons' cameras. "If there are clouds, it would mean the weather on Pluto is even more complex than we imagined," Stern said. Scientists already knew from telescope observations that Pluto's icy surface below that atmosphere varied widely in brightness. Data from the flyby not only confirms that, it also shows the brightest areas (such as sections of Pluto's large heart-shaped region) are among the most reflective in the solar system. "That brightness indicates surface activity," said Bonnie Buratti, a science team co-investigator from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena. "Because we see a pattern of high surface reflectivity equating to activity, we can infer that the dwarf planet Eris, which is known to be highly reflective, is also likely to be active." While Pluto shows many kinds of activity, one surface process apparently missing is landslides. Surprisingly, though, they have been spotted on Pluto's largest moon, Charon, itself some 750 miles (1,200 kilometers) across. "We've seen similar landslides on other rocky and icy planets, such as Mars and Saturn's moon Iapetus, but these are the first landslides we've seen this far from the sun, in the Kuiper Belt," said Ross Beyer, a science team researcher from Sagan Center at the SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research Center, California. "The big question is will they be detected elsewhere in the Kuiper Belt?" Both Hubble and cameras on the New Horizons spacecraft have been aimed at KBOs over the past two years, with New Horizons taking advantage of its unique vantage point in the Kuiper Belt to observe nearly a dozen small worlds in this barely explored region. MU69 is actually the smallest KBO to have its color measured -- and scientists have used that data to confirm the object is part of the so-called cold classical region of the Kuiper Belt, which is believed to contain some of the oldest, most prehistoric material in the solar system. "The reddish color tells us the type of Kuiper Belt object 2014 MU69 is," said Amanda Zangari, a New Horizons post-doctoral researcher from Southwest Research Institute. "The data confirms that on New Year's Day 2019, New Horizons will be looking at one of the ancient building blocks of the planets." The New Horizons spacecraft is currently 3.4 billion miles (5.5 billion kilometers) from Earth and about 340 million miles (540 million kilometers) beyond Pluto, speeding away from the sun at about nine miles (14 kilometers) every second. About 99 percent of the data New Horizons gathered and stored on its digital recorders during the Pluto encounter has now been transmitted back to Earth, with that transmission set to be completed Oct. 23. New Horizons has covered about one-third of the distance from Pluto to its next flyby target, which is now about 600 million miles (nearly 1 billion kilometers) ahead. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, designed, built, and operates the New Horizons spacecraft, and manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. In addition to being the home of the mission principal investigator, SwRI, based in San Antonio, leads the science team, payload operations and science planning. New Horizons is the first mission in NASA's New Frontiers Program, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.   Source:NASA  

Methane leaks: A new way to find and fix in real time

Researchers have flown aircraft over an oil and gas field and pinpointed -- with unprecedented precision -- sources of the greenhouse gas methane in real time. The technique led to the detection and immediate repair of two leaks in natural gas pipelines in the Four Corners region of the U.S. Southwest. The approach could inform strategies for meeting new federal limits on methane emissions from the oil and gas industry. Methane emissions have spiked in recent decades along with the boom in natural gas drilling. "If there's a desire to identify and address the largest methane emitters, our approach provides a way to do that. The method shows that you can easily fly over an area and actually see the plumes in real time," said Eric Kort, assistant professor of climate and space sciences and engineering at the University of Michigan and co-author on a paper about the research to be published inPNAS. Kort collaborated on deploying the new approach, which was developed by Christian Frankenberg of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the California Institute of Technology. The overall project is led by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The team previously used satellite measurements to identify the Four Corners region as a hotbed for methane emissions. The new work builds on the previous finding by zooming in on the region with enough detail to pinpoint individual methane plumes instead of giving an averaged view for an area many miles wide. Methane is the primary component of natural gas, but when it's released directly into the air, it's a potent greenhouse agent that plays a role in warming the planet. The Obama administration has set targets of cutting methane emissions by up to 45 percent of 2012 levels by 2025. In May, the EPA released the first round of regulations. To meet the goals, however, the sources of so-called fugitive methane emissions must be found. For a long time, there's been a discrepancy between methane levels measured from point sources on the ground, and levels measured higher in the atmosphere, says co-author Colm Sweeney, a scientist with NOAA's Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences. The atmosphere holds stores of the gas whose sources on the ground are difficult to locate. This new detection technique can help locate them. The pipeline leaks it identified are a good example of how. Operators can't always know where a pipeline may be leaking, and pipelines can be hard to access for testing from the ground. All told, the team identified 250 methane plumes emanating from natural gas processing facilities, storage tanks, well pads, pipeline leaks, a coal mine venting shaft and natural sources. Not all of these plumes can be mitigated, the researchers say. Although some represent leaks, others result from relatively unavoidable losses. Still others illuminate instances where an energy company has focussed on capturing a different resource, such as oil, and loses some of the natural gas that was buried with it. And the coal mine venting shaft is necessary to protect miners from explosions. To conduct the research, the team flew two specially instrumented Twin Otter aircraft over a 1,900-square-mile area where Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Utah meet. Each aircraft carried a unique imaging spectrometer that operates a bit like an infrared camera. One imaged at near-infrared wavelengths and the other at thermal wavelengths. Two additional NOAA program aircraft flew low over and around the larger sources measuring the concentration of methane in the plumes as calibration points for the NASA remote measurements. Statistical analysis showed that 10 percent of the methane sources the researchers identified were responsible for more than half of the observed point-source emissions in the region. This analysis confirmed the so-called "fat" or "heavy" tail statistical distribution they expected to see. "A relatively small number of sources emit a disproportionate share of emissions," Kort said. "As far as we know, this is the first direct observation of this heavy tail distribution of sources over an entire basin." The pattern is common in both nature and human behavior, explained JPL's Frankenberg. "Take earthquakes, for instance. A lot of smaller earthquakes are happening all the time and you don't even feel them. What actually matters are the few big ones," he said. Kort said a satellite could possibly be designed to detect methane plumes in this way. The paper is called "Airborne remote measurements of fat-tail methane emitters in the Four Corners region." The research was funded by NOAA and NASA. NOAA's Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences is located at the University of Colorado Boulder. Source:University of Michigan

Physicists use lasers to capture first snapshots of rapid chemical bonds breaking

 Lasers have successfully recorded a chemical reaction that happens as fast as a quadrillionth of a second, which could help scientists understand and control chemical reactions. The idea for using a laser to record a few femtoseconds of a molecule's extremely fast vibrations as it breaks apart came from Kansas State University physicists. Chii-Dong Lin, university distinguished professor of physics, and Anh-Thu Le, research associate professor in James R. Macdonald Laboratory, are part of an international collaborative project published in the Oct. 21 issue of Science. "If you want to see something that happens very, very fast, you need a tool that can measure a very, very tiny time period," Lin said. "The only light available in femtosecond measurements is a laser." A femtosecond is one-millionth of a billionth of a second, which is a million times shorter than a nanosecond. Until recently, there was no way to measure what happens during a chemical reaction in that short of a period. Lin's research group made its first molecular movie of an oxygen molecule using lasers in 2012, but to record a larger molecule -- such as the four-atom acetylene molecule -- they needed a more advanced laser. After five years of collaboration with Jens Biegert's group from ICFO-The Institute of Photonic Sciences, a member of The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Lin's idea became reality. The international team used the molecule's own electrons to scatter the molecule -- a process called mid-infrared laser-induced electron diffraction, or LIED -- and capture snapshots of acetylene as it is breaking apart. An intense laser is used to affectan acetylene molecule -- composed of two hydrogen atoms and two carbon atoms -- to strip out an electron and initiate the breakup of the molecule. After nine femtoseconds, the laser drives the free electron back to the elongated molecule to create an image. "Scientists will eventually be able to apply this tool in chemistry, biology and other physical sciences to look at different types of molecules and processes," Lin said. According to Lin, acetylene's four-atom chemical structure provides multiple possibilities where the bonds could break. Being able to measure where and when those breaks occur can help researchers better understand chemical reactions, which Lin said will lead to better control of a reaction and is applicable to multiple areas of science. "In order to control something, you have to know where it is first," Lin said. "If you throw a ball over a house, you can't see what happens to it, so you can't control it anymore. But if you have a way to see each second of the ball in the air, you can figure out why it ends up where it does and potentially change the way you throw it to control the outcome or to influence it in real time." Lin's research group started working with Kansas State University distinguished professor emeritus Lew Cocke's research group in 2008 to conduct the first LIED experiment, which led to the current development. The initial experiments enabled the researchers to apply their theory to decode signals from electrons that produce the image. By decoding the image, the researchers accurately measured the molecule's new bond distances, which are smaller than one hundred-millionth of a centimeter. "Since the snapshots, which are taken by the electrons, occur in a very strong laser field, it was thought to be nearly impossible to decode the electron information and measure the small distances," said Le, who provided critical decoding of the molecule's structure in the snapshot from Barcelona. "This is the first real-time observation of the breakup of a molecule within nine femtoseconds."   Source:Kansas State University

Dendrite eraser: New electrolyte rids batteries of short-circuiting fibers

 Dendrites -- the microscopic, pin-like fibers that cause rechargeable batteries to short circuit -- create fire hazards and can limit the ability of batteries to power our smart phones and store renewable energy for a rainy day. Now a new electrolyte for lithium batteries that's described inNature Communications eliminates dendrites while also enabling batteries to be highly efficient and carry a large amount of electric current. Batteries using other dendrite-limiting solutions haven't been able to maintain both high efficiencies and current densities. "Our new electrolyte helps lithium batteries be more than 99 percent efficient and enables them to carry more than ten times more electric current per area than previous technologies," said physicist Ji-Guang "Jason" Zhang of the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. "This new discovery could kick-start the development of powerful and practical next-generation rechargeable batteries such as lithium-sulfur, lithium-air and lithium-metal batteries." Battery 101 Most of the rechargeable batteries used today are lithium-ion batteries, which have two electrodes: one that's positively charged and contains lithium and another, negative one that's typically made of graphite. Electricity is generated when electrons flow through a wire that connects the two. To control the electrons, positively charged lithium atoms shuffle from one electrode to the other through another path: the electrolyte solution in which the electrodes sit. But graphite has a low energy storage capacity, limiting the amount of energy a lithium-ion battery can provide smart phones and electric vehicles. When lithium-based rechargeable batteries were first developed in the 1970s, researchers used lithium for the negative electrode, which is also known as an anode. Lithium was chosen because it has ten times more energy storage capacity than graphite. Problem was, the lithium-carrying electrolyte reacted with the lithium anode. This caused microscopic lithium dendrites to grow and led the early batteries to fail. Many have tweaked rechargeable batteries over the years in an attempt to resolve the dendrite problem. In the early 1990s, researchers switched to other materials such as graphite for the anode. More recently, scientists have also coated the anode with a protective layer, while others have created electrolyte additives. Some solutions eliminated dendrites, but also resulted in impractical batteries with little power. Other methods only slowed, but didn't stop, the fiber's growth. Concentrated secret sauce Thinking today's rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with graphite anodes could be near their peak energy capacity, PNNL is taking another look at the older designs. Zhang and his team sought to develop an electrolyte that worked well in batteries with a high-capacity lithium anode. They noted others had some success with electrolytes with high salt concentrations and decided to use large amounts of the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt they were considering. To make the electrolyte, they added the salt to a solvent called dimethoxyethane. The researchers built a circular test cell that was slightly smaller than a quarter. The cell used the new electrolyte and a lithium anode. Instead of growing dendrites, the anode developed a thin, relatively smooth layer of lithium nodules that didn't short-circuit the battery. After 1,000 repeated charge and discharge cycles, the test cell retained a remarkable 98.4 percent of its initial energy while carrying 4 milliAmps of electrical current per square centimeter of area. They found greater current densities resulted in slightly lower efficiencies. For example, a current density as high as 10 milliAmps per square centimeter, the test cell maintained an efficiency of more than 97 percent. And a test cell carrying just 0.2 milliAmps per square centimeter achieved a whopping 99.1 percent efficiency. Most batteries with lithium anodes operate at a current density of 1 milliAmps per square centimeter or less and fail after less than 300 cycles. Anode-free battery? The new electrolyte's remarkably high efficiency could also open the door for an anode-free battery, Zhang noted. The negative electrodes in today's batteries actually consist of thin pieces of metal such as copper that are coated in active materials such as graphite or lithium. The thin metal bases are called current collectors, as they are what keep electrons flowing to power our cell phones. Active materials have been needed to coat the electrodes because, so far, most electrolytes have been inefficient and continue to consume lithium ions during battery operation. But an electrolyte with more than 99 percent efficiency means there's potential to create a battery that only has a negative current collector, without an active material coating, on the anode side. "Not needing an anode could lower the cost and size of rechargeable batteries and would also significantly improve the safety of these batteries," Zhang said. The electrolyte needs to be refined before it's ready for mainstream use, however. Zhang and his colleagues are evaluating various additives to further enhance their electrolyte so a lithium battery using it could achieve more than 99.9 percent efficiency, a level that's needed for commercial adoption. They are also examining which cathode materials would work best in combination with their new electrolyte.   Source:DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Salt power: Watt's next in rechargeable batteries?

 Reza Shahbazian-Yassar thinks sodium might be the next big thing in rechargeable batteries. Now, the gold standard in the industry is the lithium ion battery, which can be recharged hundreds of times and works really well. Its only problem is that it is made with lithium, which is not cheap. It could get even more expensive if more electric vehicles powered with lithium ion batteries hit the road and drive up demand. "Some people think lithium will be the next oil," says Shahbazian-Yassar, an associate professor of mechanical engineering-engineering mechanics at Michigan Technological University. Sodium may be a good alternative. "After lithium, it's the most attractive element to be used in batteries," Shahbazian-Yassar said. It's also cheap and abundant; seawater is full of it. It has just one drawback: sodium atoms are big, about 70 percent larger in size than lithium atoms. "When the atoms are too big, that's problematic," says Shahbazian-Yassar, because they can cause a battery's electrodes to wear out faster. "Imagine bringing an elephant through the door into my office. It's going to break down the walls." Before a long-lasting rechargeable sodium battery can be developed, scientists need to better understand these challenges and develop solutions. With a $417,000 National Science Foundation grant, Shahbazian-Yassar is leading that effort at Michigan Tech. "We have an opportunity to tackle some of the fundamental issues relating to charging and discharging of batteries right here," he said. "We have a unique tool that lets us observe the inside of a battery." Using a transmission electron microscope, Shahbazian-Yassar and his team can peer inside and see how a battery is charging and discharging at the atomic level. "We will study these fundamental reactions and find out what materials and electrodes will do a better job hosting the sodium." Sodium ion batteries would not have to be as good as lithium ion batteries to be competitive, Shahbazian-Yassar notes. They would just need to be good enough to satisfy the consumer. And they could make electric cars more affordable, and thus more attractive. Plus, they could reduce our dependence on fossil fuels, particularly if the batteries were charged using renewable energy sources. That would lead to two laudable goals: greater energy independence and less pollution worldwide.   Source:Michigan Technological University

New, carbon-nanotube tool for ultra-sensitive virus detection, identification

 A new tool that uses a forest-like array of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes that can be finely tuned to selectively trap viruses by their size can increase the detection threshold for viruses and speed the process of identifying newly-emerging viruses. The research, by an interdisciplinary team of scientists at Penn State, is published in the October 7, 2016 edition of the journal Science Advances.   "Detecting viruses early in an infection before symptoms appear, or from field samples, is difficult because the concentration of the viruses could be very low -- often below the threshold of current detection methods," said Mauricio Terrones, professor of physics, chemistry, and materials science and engineering at Penn State, and one of the corresponding authors of the research. "Early detection is important because a virus can begin to spread before we have the ability to detect it. The device we have developed allows us to selectively trap and concentrate viruses by their size -- smaller than human cells and bacteria, but larger than most proteins and other macromolecules -- in incredibly dilute samples. It further increases our ability to detect small amounts of a virus by more than a hundred times." The research team developed and tested a small, portable device that increases the sensitivity of virus detection by trapping and concentrating viruses in an array of carbon nanotubes. Dilute samples collected from patients or the environment are passed through a filter to remove large particles such as bacteria and human cells, then through the array of carbon nanotubes in the device. Viruses get trapped and build up to usable concentrations within the forest of nanotubes, while other smaller particles pass through and are eliminated. The concentrated virus captured in the device can then be put through a panel of tests to identify it, including molecular diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunological methods, virus isolation, and genome sequencing. "Because our device isolates and concentrates viruses purely by size, we can capture viruses that we don't know anything about biologically -- we don't need any antibody or other molecular label," said Terrones. "Once we capture and concentrate the virus, we can then use other techniques such as whole-genome sequencing to characterize it." "Most lethal viral outbreaks in the past two decades were caused by newly emerging viruses. This size-based virus-enrichment technology can be particularly powerful in identification of emerging viruses and discovery of new viruses that do not have antibodies and sequence information available," said Si-Yang Zheng, associate professor of biomedical engineering at Penn State, the other corresponding author on the paper. "Not only does our new technology enrich viruses by at least one hundred times, but it also removes host and environmental contaminants, and enables direct virus identification by next-generation sequencing from field-collected samples without virus culture." Viruses -- such as influenza, HIV/AIDS, Ebola, and Zika -- can cause sudden, unpredictable outbreaks that lead to severe public-health crises. Currently available techniques for isolating and identifying the viruses that cause these outbreaks are slow, expensive, and use equipment and reagents that can be expensive, bulky, and require specialized storage. Additionally, many recent outbreaks have been caused by newly emerging viruses for which there are no established ways to selectively isolate them for identification and characterization. "We developed the technology to grow a forest of nanotubes and we can control the distance between the trunks," said Zheng. "The intertube distance can range from about 17 nanometers to over 300 nanometers to selectively capture viruses. The unique properties of the carbon-nanotube forest allow us to integrate it into a robust, scalable, and portable microdevice that can be adapted for use in the field without the need for bulky instruments and specialized storage of reagents." The researchers validated the ability of their newly developed device to capture viruses from dilute samples using known concentrations of previously identified viruses as well as field samples of emerging and unknown viruses. "We developed a portable platform to enrich and isolate viruses based on their physical sizes," said Yin-Ting Yeh, a postdoctoral researcher at Penn State and first author of the paper. "This tunable size-based approach provides rapid virus enrichment directly from field samples without the use of antibodies. The device enables early detection of emerging diseases and potentially allows for vaccine development much sooner in the process of an outbreak."   Source:Penn State University

Graphene cracks the glass corrosion problem

 Researchers at the Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have demonstrated graphene coating protects glass from corrosion. Their research, published in ACS Nano, can contribute to solving problems related to glass corrosion in several industries. Glass has a high degree of both corrosion and chemical resistance. For this reason it is the primary packaging material to preserve medicines and chemicals. However, over time at high humidity and pH, some glass types corrode. Corroded glass loses its transparency and its strength is reduced. As a result, the corrosion of silicate glass, the most common and oldest form of glass, by water is a serious problem especially for the pharmaceutical, environmental and optical industries, and in particular in hot and humid climates. Although there are different types of glass, ordinary glazing and containers are made of silicon dioxide (SiO2), sodium oxide (Na2O) along with minor additives. Glass corrosion begins with the adsorption of water on the glass surface. Hydrogen ions from water then diffuse into the glass and exchange with the sodium ions present on the glass surface. The pH of the water near the glass surface increases, allowing the silicate structure to dissolve. Scientists have been looking at how to coat glass to protect it from damage. An ideal protective coating should be thin, transparent, and provide a good diffusion barrier to chemical attack. Graphene with its chemical inertness, thinness, and high transparency makes it very promising as a coating material. Moreover, owing to its excellent chemical barrier properties it blocks helium atoms from penetrating through it. The use of graphene coating is being explored as a protective layer for other materials requiring resistance to corrosion, oxidation, friction, bacterial infection, electromagnetic radiation, etc. IBS scientists grew graphene on copper using a technique previously invented by Prof. Rodney S. Ruoff and collaborators, and transferred either one or two atom-thick layers of graphene onto both sides of rectangular pieces of glass. The effectiveness of the graphene coating was evaluated by water immersion testing and observing the differences between uncoated and coated glass. After 120 days of immersion in water at 60°C, uncoated glass samples had significantly increased in surface roughness and defects, and reduced in fracture strength. In contrast, both the single and double layer graphene-coated glasses had essentially no change in both fracture strength and surface roughness. "The purpose of the study was to determine whether graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foils, a now established method, could be transferred onto glass, and protect the glass from corrosion. Our study shows that even one atom-thick layer of graphene does the trick," explains Prof. Ruoff, director of the CMCM and Professor at the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST). "In the future, when it is possible to produce larger and yet higher-quality graphene sheets and to optimize the transfer on glass, it seems reasonably likely that graphene coating on glass will be used on an industrial scale."   Source:Institute for Basic Science
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