Imprinting technology is an ancient technique for the reproduction of writings on appropriate supports. Since 1990′s, one of the imprinting techniques, i.e., injection moulding has been used for compact disk (CD) production. More recently, the semiconductor industry is interested in imprint related techniques because of the mass production requirement of future microelectronic circuits with a possible critical dimension down to a few nanometers. At this deep nanometer scale, traditional photolithography is supposed to rule out because of the optical diffraction or material limitations. In fact, the actual minimum feature size in an integrated circuit (IC) is already less than 50 nm and the actual manufacturing systems are already extremely sophisticated and expensive. The semiconductor industry has always been looking for alternative patterning methods in order to follow Moore′s law, which has been formulated to predict the evolution of the technology nodes. Now, extreme UV lithography (EUV), 193 nm immersion lithography, mask less lithography (MLL) techniques and nanoimprint lithography (NIL) are considered as candidates for the so called Next Generation Lithography (NGL) at 32 nm and 22 nm nodes. In parallel, imprint technology has been promoted by a large scientific community and non-IC industry segments including high-density storage, optoelectronics, telecommunication as well as biochips or micro total analysis systems.
This report studies the MIM Parts market. Metal injection molding (MIM) is a metalworking process in which finely-powdered metal is mixed with binder material to create a "feedstock" that is then shaped and solidified using injection molding. The molding process allows high volume, complex parts to be shaped in a single step. After molding, the part undergoes conditioning operations to remove the binder (debinding) and densify the powders. Finished products are small components used in many industries and applications.
This report studies the Microwave Oven market, microwave oven is a kitchen appliance that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range. This induces polar molecules in the food to rotate and produce thermal energy in a process known as dielectric heating. Microwave ovens heat foods quickly and efficiently because excitation is fairly uniform in the outer 25–38 mm (1–1.5 inches) of a homogeneous, high water content food item; food is more evenly heated throughout than generally occurs in other cooking techniques.
Audiometer is a device used to evaluate hearing loss during an audiology test. Usually, it is an individual piece of hardware that delivers pure tones of controlled intensity to one ear at a time, to which a patient responds when they can hear the tone. Many modern devices can either be used alone or connected to a computer and integrated with hearing conservation databases.