A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and interrupt current flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are devices that physically capture diesel particulates to prevent their release to the atmosphere. Diesel particulate filter materials have been developed that show impressive filtration efficiencies, in excess of 90%, as well as good mechanical and thermal durability. Diesel particulate filters have become the most effective technology for the control of diesel particulate emissions—including particle mass and numbers—with high efficiencies.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, activated coal, or carbon activates, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions. Activated is sometimes substituted with active. Due to its high degree of micro porosity, just one gram of activated carbon has a surface area in excess of 500 m2, as determined by gas adsorption. An activation level sufficient for useful application may be attained solely from high surface area; however, further chemical treatment often enhances adsorption properties. Activated charcoal is considered to be the most effective single agent available Activated carbon is usually derived from charcoal and increasingly, high-porosity bio char.
Intravenous Solutions is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein. Therapies administered intravenously are often included in the designation of specialty drugs. Intravenous infusions are commonly referred to as drips because many systems of administration employ a drip chamber, which prevents air from entering the blood stream (air embolism), and allows an estimation of flow rate.
A ball valve is a device with a spherical closure unit that provides on/off control of flow. The sphere has a port, also known as a bore, through the center. When the valve is positioned such that the bore is aligned in the same direction as the pipeline, it is in open position and fluid can flow through it. When rotated 90 degrees, the bore becomes perpendicular to the flow path, meaning the valve is closed and the fluid cannot pass through.