1,3-Butanediol (also known as butane-1,3-diol, or 1,3-dihydroxybutane) is a diol used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of polyester plasticizers and other products. It finds some use as a solvent for flavorings and as a humectant in pet foods, tobacco and cosmetics. It is one of four stable structural isomers of butanediol. In biology, 1,3-Butanediol is used as a hypoglycaemic agent. 1,3-Butanediol can be converted into β-hydroxybutyrate and serve as a substrate for brain metabolism.
Thin film is referred to the several layer of material having thickness ranging from nanometer to micrometer.
Silicon nanowires also signified as SiNWs, are a type of nanowire most often formed from a silicon precursor by etching of a solid or through catalyzed growth from a vapor or liquid phase.
Carbonates are salts of carbonic acids, which contain carbonate ion and ions of metal such as sodium, calcium, potassium, and others. 
Nanodiamonds (NDs), also called detonation diamonds (DND) or ultradispersed diamonds (UDD), are relatively easy and inexpensive to produce, and have moved towards large-scale.
Carbon filler based nanomaterials include single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, nanofilms, and carbon nanoparticles, which are currently one of the most attractive nanomaterials.