Global Cryopump Market will reach 535 M USD by 2022

A cryopump or a "cryogenic pump" is a vacuum pump that traps gases and vapours by condensing them on a cold surface, but are only effective on some gases. The effectiveness depends on the freezing and boiling points of the gas relative to the cryopump's temperature. They are sometimes used to block particular contaminants, for example in front of a diffusion pump to trap backstreaming oil, or in front of a McLeod gauge to keep out water. In this function, they are called a cryotrap, waterpump or cold trap, even though the physical mechanism is the same as for a cryopump. The top players cover SHI Cryogenics Group, Ulvac, Brooks, Leybold, Trillium, PHPK Technologies and Vacree. These companies account for 80% of the market share. The "Global Cryopump Sales Market Report 2017" released by QYResearch shows that the global Sales Revenue of Cryopump is about 412 million USD in 2016 and is expected to reach 535 million USD by the end of 2022, with a CAGR 4.45% (2016-2022). USA, Europe, Japan and China are remarkable in the global Cryopump market because of their Economic and technical strength. And the sales share of USA, Europe, Japan and China were 27%, 20%, 14% and 12% respectively in 2016.   GlobalInfoResearch All Rights Reserved

Global Power Cables Market Size Forecast 2022

This report studies the Power Cables market status and outlook of global and major regions, from angles of manufacturers, regions, product types and end industries; this report analyzes the top manufacturers in global and major regions, and splits the Power Cables market by product type and applications/end industries.   In the last several years, global market of Power Cables developed rapidly, with an average growth rate of 7.44%. In 2016, global revenue of Power Cables is nearly 67.8 Billion USD; the actual production is about 12530000 Km.   The major players in global Power Cables market include Prysmian Group Nexans Sumitomo Electric Furukawa General Cable Southwire Leoni LS Cable & Systems Fujikura Far East Cable Jiangnan Cable Baosheng Group Hitachi Encore Wire NKT Hengtong Group Xignux Finolex KEI Industries   Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate of Power Cables in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering North America Europe Asia Pacific RoW   On the basis of product, the Power Cables market is primarily split into High Voltage Power Cables Medium Voltage Power Cables Low Voltage Power Cables   On the basis on the end users/applications,this report covers Overland Underground Submarine Notice: RoW means Rest of World.   The report focuses on Global major leading industry players providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and  equipment and downstream demand analysis is also carried out. The AAA industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally the feasibility of new investment projects are assessed and overall research conclusions offered. With 149 tables and figures the report provides key statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.  

Global Anticancer Drugs Market Forecast 2022

  Anticancer drugs are used to treat malignancies, or cancerous growths. Drug therapy may be used alone, or in combination with other treatments such as surgery or radiation therapy. Anticancer drugs are used to control the growth of cancerous cells. Cancer is commonly defined as the uncontrolled growth of cells, with loss of differentiation and commonly, with metastasis, spread of the cancer to other tissues and organs. Cancers are malignant growths. In contrast, benign growths remain encapsulated and grow within a well-defined area. Although benign tumors may be fatal if untreated, due to pressure on essential organs, as in the case of a benign brain tumor, surgery or radiation are the preferred methods of treating growths which have a defined location. Drug therapy is used when the tumor has spread, or may spread, to all areas of the body. At present, most common solid tumors, such as lung cancer, liver cancer, colon cancer and pancreatic cancer, still lack effective drugs, and many anticancer drugs have drug resistance in the course of clinical application. Therefore, the research of new anticancer drugs is imperative. In recent years, with the rapid development of science and technology and advances in molecular oncology and molecular biology technology, new anticancer drugs have been discovered. The "Global Anticancer Drugs Market Research Report 2017" released by GlobalInfoResearch shows that the revenue of anticancer drugs is about 121.25 billion USD in 2016 all around the world. And the anticancer drugs market will reach 173.23 billion USD by 2022, with a CAGR 7.4% (2016-2022).   GlobalInfoResearch ALL Rights Reserved

Lithium-air batteries: Mystery about proposed battery material clarified

Battery researchers agree that one of the most promising possibilities for future battery technology is the lithium-air (or lithium-oxygen) battery, which could provide three times as much power for a given weight as today's leading technology, lithium-ion batteries. But tests of various approaches to creating such batteries have produced conflicting and confusing results, as well as controversies over how to explain them. Now, a team at MIT has carried out detailed tests that seem to resolve the questions surrounding one promising material for such batteries: a compound called lithium iodide (LiI). The compound was seen as a possible solution to some of the lithium-air battery's problems, including an inability to sustain many charging-discharging cycles, but conflicting findings had raised questions about the material's usefulness for this task. The new study explains these discrepancies, and although it suggests that the material might not be suitable after all, the work provides guidance for efforts to overcome LiI's drawbacks or find alternative materials. The new results appear in the journal Energy and Environmental Science, in a paper by Yang Shao-Horn, MIT's W.M. Keck Professor of Energy; Paula Hammond, the David H. Koch Professor in Engineering and head of the Department of Chemical Engineering; Michal Tulodziecki, a recent MIT postdoc at the Research Laboraotory of Electronics; Graham Leverick, an MIT graduate student; Yu Katayama, a visiting student; and three others. The promise of the lithium-air battery comes from the fact one of the two electrodes, which are usually made of metal or metal oxides, is replaced with air that flows in and out of the battery; a weightless substance is thus substituted for one of the heavy components. The other electrode in such batteries would be pure metallic lithium, a lightweight element. But that theoretical promise has been limited in practice because of three issues: the need for high voltages for charging, a low efficiency with regard to getting back the amount of energy put in, and low cycle lifetimes, which result from instability in the battery's oxygen electrode. Researchers have proposed adding lithium iodide in the electrolyte as a way of addressing these problems. But published results have been contradictory, with some studies finding the LiI does improve the cycling life, "while others show that the presence of LiI leads to irreversible reactions and poor battery cycling," Shao-Horn says. Previously, "most of the research was focused on organics" to make lithium-air batteries feasible, says Michal Tulodziecki, the paper's lead author. But most of these organic compounds are not stable, he says, "and that's why there's been a great focus on lithium iodide [an inorganic material], which some papers said helps the batteries achieve thousands of cycles. But others say no, it will damage the battery." In this new study, he says, "we explored in detail how lithium iodide affects the process, with and without water," a comparison which turned out to be significant. The team looked at the role of LiI on lithium-air battery discharge, using a different approach from most other studies. One set of studies was conducted with the components outside of the battery, which allowed the researchers to zero in on one part of the reaction, while the other study was done in the battery, to help explain the overall process. They then used ultraviolet and visible-light spectroscopy and other techniques to study the reactions that took place. Both of these processes foster the production of different lithium compound such as LiOH (lithium hydroxide) in the presence of both LiI and water, instead of Li2O2 (lithium peroxide). LiI can enhance water's reactivity and make it lose protons more easily, which promotes the formation of LiOH in these batteries and interferes with the charging process. These observations show that finding ways to suppress these reactions could make compounds such as LiI work better. This study could point the way toward selecting a different compound instead of LiI to perform its intended function of suppressing unwanted chemical reactions at the electrode surface, Leverick says, adding that this work demonstrates the importance of "looking at the detailed mechanism carefully." Shao-Horn says that the new findings "help get to the bottom of this existing controversy on the role of LiI on discharge. We believe this clarifies and brings together all these different points of view." But this work is just one step in a long process of trying to make lithium-air technology practical, the researchers say. "There's so much to understand," says Leverick, "so there's not one paper that's going to solve it. But we will make consistent progress." Story Source: Materials provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Original written by David L. Chandler. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene. As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind, the research group of SungWoo Nam, assistant professor of mechanical science and engineering at Illinois, has developed a cleaner and more environmentally friendly method to isolate graphene using carbon dioxide (CO2) in the form of carbonic acid as the electrolyte solution. The findings are published in the most recent Journal of Materials Chemistry C. Nam, an expert in the area of 2D materials, is especially interested in graphene for its use in sensors or flexible devices -- for instance, a wearable patch that, when placed directly on skin, is so thin and transparent, it isn't noticeable. Nam currently has projects with industry for making wearable graphene sensors. Graphene is synthesized by using chemical vapor deposition onto a metal substrate, typically copper foil. One particularly tricky aspect of producing graphene is how to separate this atomically thin material from its native metal substrate for integration into useful devices. This typically involves either dissolving away the high-purity metal or delaminating it from the substrate -- which require the use of harsh chemicals that leave stubborn residue. The ultra-thin graphene also needs to be coated with a polymer support layer such as polycarbonate or PMMA (poly methyl methacrylate), which requires the use of often toxic and carcinogenic solvents. "In our case, we are using a bio-mass derived polymer, ethyl cellulose, for the coating," said Michael Cai Wang, Nam's PhD student and lead researcher on the project. "A common and inexpensive polymer often used as a food additive, ethyl cellulose is solvated in just ethanol. This not only makes our graphene transfer process more environmentally friendly, it is now also compatible with a variety of polymeric and soft biological materials such as common plastics and hydrogels that would otherwise not tolerate harsh solvents." "After you transfer the graphene, the carbonic acid simply evaporates away as carbon dioxide and water, which doesn't require any further rinsing," Nam noted. "We're thus saving both water and time by eliminating the conventional need for the repetitive and tedious rinsing process. In using electrolytes such as NaOH or NaCl, for example, the sodium tends to remain on the graphene, which is very difficult to completely get rid of." "By delaminating the graphene off from the copper foil using carbonic acid, we are also able to reuse the growth substrate multiple times instead of expending it, realizing significant material and cost savings" Wang said. "I think scientifically what we are bringing to the community is to really motivate people to think about a cleaner way for making graphene," Nam said. "We are trying to improve upon the well-established protocols so that industry can easily adopt our techniques. Because a lot of devices are contaminated by these previously used chemicals, it inevitably affects the property of graphene." "Graphene is just starting to mature from the laboratory and into commercial applications," Wang said. "Once you start large-scale manufacturing, workers' health is also a major consideration, another benefit of our greener process." In addition to making our favorite cup of decaf or glass of champagne, the group also hopes the scientific community might take this as inspiration to find novel ways to utilize otherwise nuisance CO2 for practical applications. They envision extending the useful life cycle of carbon in the industrial ecosystem while diverting and mitigating its emission into the atmosphere. While ocean acidification is an undesirable consequence of the ever-increasing carbon dioxide concentration in the Earth's atmosphere, the research team took this as an inspiration to harnessing this very same mechanism to sustainably manufacture this new "wonder" material. Nam also believes this method can have an impact on not just the production of graphene, but also provide a green and affordable technique to use for etching and delamination processing of other materials as well. "If you are interested in making the best transistor in the world, you have to have the cleanest, purest material that you can synthesize and transfer," he concluded. "Here we provide that opportunity to the community. In addition, a lot of people are trying to measure the intrinsic properties of other materials as well. Our approach will help them do that." Story Source: Materials provided by University of Illinois College of Engineering. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Discovery could lead to new catalyst design to reduce nitrogen oxides in diesel exhaust

Researchers have discovered a new reaction mechanism that could be used to improve catalyst designs for pollution control systems to further reduce emissions of smog-causing nitrogen oxides in diesel exhaust. The research focuses on a type of catalyst called zeolites, workhorses in petroleum and chemical refineries and in emission-control systems for diesel engines. New catalyst designs are needed to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides, or NOx, because current technologies only work well at relatively high temperatures. "The key challenge in reducing emissions is that they can occur over a very broad range of operating conditions, and especially exhaust temperatures," said Rajamani Gounder, the Larry and Virginia Faith Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering in Purdue University's Davidson School of Chemical Engineering. "Perhaps the biggest challenge is related to reducing NOx at low exhaust temperatures, for example during cold start or in congested urban driving." However, in addition to these "transient" conditions, future vehicles will naturally operate at lower temperatures all the time because they will be more efficient. "So we're going to need catalysts that perform better not only during transient conditions, but also during sustained lower exhaust temperatures," Gounder said. He co-led a team of researchers who have uncovered an essential property of the catalyst for it to be able to convert nitrogen oxides. Findings will be published online in the journal Science on Thursday (Aug. 17) and will appear in a later print issue of the magazine. "The results here point to a previously unrecognized catalytic mechanism and also point to new directions for discovering better catalysts," said William Schneider, the H. Clifford and Evelyn A. Brosey Professor of Engineering at the University of Notre Dame. "This is a reaction of major environmental importance used to clean up exhaust." The work was performed by researchers at Purdue, Notre Dame and Cummins Inc., a manufacturer of diesel engines. "Cummins has been supporting Purdue chemical engineering research related to the abatement of engine emissions for the past 14 years," said Aleksey Yezerets, director of Catalyst Technology at Cummins. "This publication shows one example of the many insights into these complex processes that we have worked on together through the years." Zeolites have a crystalline structure containing tiny pores about 1 nanometer in diameter that are filled with copper-atom "active sites" where the chemistry takes place. In the new findings, the researchers discovered that ammonia introduced into the exhaust "solvates" these copper ions so that they can migrate within the pores, find one another, and perform a catalytic step not otherwise possible. These copper-ammonia complexes speed up a critical bond-breaking reaction of oxygen molecules, which currently requires an exhaust temperature of about 200 degrees Celsius to occur effectively. Researchers are trying to reduce this temperature to about 150 degrees Celsius. "The reason this whole chemistry works is because isolated single copper sites come together, and work in tandem to carry out a difficult step in the reaction mechanism," Gounder said. "It's a dynamic process involving single copper sites that meet to form pairs during the reaction to activate oxygen molecules, and then go back to being isolated sites after the reaction is complete." This rate-limiting step might be accelerated by fine-tuning the spatial distribution of the copper ions, leading to lower nitrogen oxide emissions at cooler temperatures than now possible. To make these discoveries, the researchers needed techniques that could "see" the copper atoms while the catalytic reaction was happening. No one technique is able to accomplish this, so they combined information from studies using high-energy X-rays at a synchrotron at Argonne National Laboratory, with molecular-level computational models performed on supercomputers at the Notre Dame Center for Research Computing and the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. "Beyond a doubt, we could not have made these discoveries without a diverse and tightly integrated team and access to some of the most powerful laboratory and computer tools in the country," said Schneider. Although the project focuses on "on-road" pollution abatement applications, the largest market share for zeolite catalysts is in petroleum refineries. The discovery has implications for "heterogeneous catalysis," which is widely used in industry. "Most catalytic processes in industry use heterogeneous technology," Gounder said. The paper was authored by Purdue graduate students Ishant Khurana, Atish A. Parekh, Arthur J. Shih, John R. Di Iorio and Jonatan D. Albarracin-Caballero; University of Notre Dame graduate students Christopher Paolucci, Sichi Li and Hui Li; Yezerets; Purdue professor of chemical engineering Jeffrey T. Miller; W. Nicholas Delgass, Purdue's Maxine Spencer Nichols Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering; Fabio H. Ribeiro, Purdue's R. Norris and Eleanor Shreve Professor of Chemical Engineering; Schneider; and Gounder. The research has been funded by the National Science Foundation and by Cummins Inc. "This research is part of our mission as a land-grant university," Gounder said. "We work with companies in the state of Indiana, and this work was an essential part in the education of many students." Story Source: Materials provided by Purdue University. Original written by Emil Venere. Note: Content may be edited for style and length

Supercapacitors promise recharging of phones and other devices in seconds and minutes as opposed to

Anyone who has a rear-view mirror that automatically dims blue in reaction to annoying high-beam headlights glaring from behind has seen an electrochromic film in action. Now, chemists at the Georgia Institute of Technology have developed a new method to more safely and, by extension, easily produce these shear films, which change their color with the help of a tiny electric current. This could make them available to many industries that have not been able to feasibly use them before. In manufacturing, electrochromic films are often coated onto other materials, such as the surface of a mirror, as inks. They are usually based in solvents that are flammable and have toxic fumes, making them unsuitable for many work settings that rely on printing and spraying machinery to apply colors. Georgia Tech researchers have developed electrochromic film inks that are water-based, making them safer for diffuse application in settings where the kinds of safety precautions and protective equipment that are standard in handling volatile organic chemicals would be impractical. Everyday environments "Where people print is not always in chemically safe environments," said John Reynolds, a professor in Georgia Tech's Schools of Chemistry and Biochemistryand Material Science and Engineering. So Reynolds and the study's first author Brian Schmatz, who came up with the water-based method, set out to make electrochromic film inks safer for everyday environments. There were some hurdles to pulling it off. The finished product had to electrically operate comparable to films that are applied in an organic solvent, and also be water-resistant in spite of the water-based production. Schmatz's method also needed to be logistically and financially realistic for producers to implement. The researchers published details on their solution and how it has met the criteria in the journal ACS Central Science on August 16, 2017. Should the chemical process progress to production, the future may see more windows, prescription glasses, or even textiles that switch between colors and shades of darkness with the click of a button or with the help of a light-detecting switch. That's how many self-dimming rear-view mirrors work: The high-beams of the motorist behind you hit a light sensor that applies a mild electric field to the mirror, and that activates the color-changing, or electrochromic, film, which switches to a darker tint. Electrochemical rainbow The Reynolds lab's electrochromic films are made with conjugated polymers, colorful and electroactive organic molecules. They easily let go of a few of their more loosely attached electrons, and when they do, their colors shift. If the colored films are on a clear surface, when the color vanishes, the surface becomes clear. The surface has to be conductive so that a small voltage (about 1 volt) can be applied to bump the electrons off the conjugated polymer or help them jump back on. The tints don't have to be gray, blue, brown, or otherwise straight-laced. "We can make any color," Reynolds said. 'Toxic,' 'carcinogenic' Because of previous inks' organic solvents, applying electrochromic films in the past has come with significant safety requirements. Their costs could become prohibitive if the job is big, say, if a company wanted to cover the windows of an office building with an electrochromic film. "Most research labs use chlorobenzene as a solvent. It's pretty toxic. It's carcinogenic, slightly volatile as well," Schmatz said. "So, it's not something people want to work with at scale." Also, people may simply find the smell of an organic chemical in their workplace unpleasant. Examples of organic solvent smells most everyone has experienced are kerosene, gasoline, or rubbing alcohol. Organic then aqueous Water as a solvent is much safer, but it can present other challenges. Conjugated polymers are produced in organic solvents and do not inherently dissolve in water. Also, films printed from water-based inks might wash out in the rain or smudge in high humidity. Schmatz's invention combines the best of both worlds by using an organic solvent and an aqueous solvent in phases. First, the conjugated polymer is produced in an organic solvent to assure quality material is made. That's also aligned with chemical industry practices. "Chemical companies really do a lot of this kind of processing, and it's advantageous to keep this as it is, so the companies can keep doing what they're doing and add this product more easily," Schmatz said. But then Schmatz alters the conjugated polymer -- the ink's active ingredient, so to speak -- which is usually not water soluble, so that it will indeed dissolve in water. "We embed a chemical trigger within the polymer. It's activated through a high pH water wash, and that transforms the organic soluble polymer into a water soluble polyelectrolyte," he said. "The reason we want to do all of this is so we can produce the polymer in an organic solvent, but then print the polymer from a water-based ink." Ultraviolet cleaver To make sure that the film doesn't smear or run after printing and that it functions well when it's completed, Schmatz cleaves off that added chemical trigger from the conjugated polymer by shining ultraviolet light on the electrochromic film. The water-soluble chemical chain then becomes a simple residue that can be wiped or rinsed off. What's left is a robust, pure conjugated polymer film, which can no longer dissolve in water or organic solvents. Reynolds envisions electrochromic films on various materials, including some other than glass or plastic. "You could apply this to camouflage, for example, with the right textiles, and have a sensor connected to a battery, and have it switch the colors to match the changing lightness or darkness of a soldier's surroundings." Aside from electrochromics, these conjugated polymers are also being explored for printed transistors, solar cells, chemical and bio-sensors, light emitting displays and bioelectronics. Reynold's group has access to a number of delivery methods to test the application of conjugated polymers. "Georgia Tech is a focused engineering university and has application capabilities you can find right here," Reynolds said. "The various methods of printing or spraying are here -- airbrush, blade coater, ink jet. And if we don't have something, we can build it here." Story Source: Materials provided by Georgia Institute of Technology. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Boron nitride foam soaks up carbon dioxide

Rice University materials scientists have created a light foam from two-dimensional sheets of hexagonal-boron nitride (h-BN) that absorbs carbon dioxide. They discovered freeze-drying h-BN turned it into a macro-scale foam that disintegrates in liquids. But adding a bit of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) into the mix transformed it into a far more robust and useful material. The foam is highly porous and its properties can be tuned for use in air filters and as gas absorption materials, according to researchers in the Rice lab of materials scientist Pulickel Ajayan. Their work appears in the American Chemical Society journal ACS Nano. The polyvinyl alcohol serves as a glue. Mixed into a solution with flakes of h-BN, it binds the junctions as the microscopic sheets arrange themselves into a lattice when freeze-dried. The one-step process is scalable, the researchers said. "Even a very small amount of PVA works," said co-author and Rice postdoctoral researcher Chandra Sekhar Tiwary. "It helps make the foam stiff by gluing the interconnects between the h-BN sheets -- and at the same time, it hardly changes the surface area at all." In molecular dynamics simulations, the foam adsorbed 340 percent of its own weight in carbon dioxide. The greenhouse gas can be evaporated out of the material, which can be reused repeatedly, Tiwary said. Compression tests showed the foam got stiffer through 2,000 cycles as well. And when coated with PDMS, another polymer, the foam becomes an effective shield from lasers that could be used in biomedical, electronics and other applications, he said. Ultimately, the researchers want to gain control over the size of the material's pores for specific applications, like separating oil from water. Simulations carried out by co-author Cristiano Woellner, a joint postdoctoral researcher at Rice and the State University of Campinas, Brazil, could serve as a guide for experimentalists. "It's important to join experiments and theoretical calculations to see the mechanical response of this composite," Woellner said. "This way, experimentalists will see in advance how they can improve the system." Rice graduate student Peter Owuor is lead author of the paper. Co-authors are Ok-Kyung Park, a visiting scholar at Rice and a postdoctoral researcher at Chonbuk National University, Republic of Korea; Rice postdoctoral researchers Almaz Jalilov and Rodrigo Villegas Salvatierra and graduate students Luong Xuan Duy, Sandhya Susarla and Jarin Joyner; Rice alumnus Sehmus Ozden, now a postdoctoral fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robert Vajtai, a senior faculty fellow at Rice; Jun Lou, a Rice professor of materials science and nanoengineering; and James Tour, Rice's T.T. and W.F. Chao Chair in Chemistry as well as a professor of computer science and of materials science and nanoengineering; and Professor Douglas Galvão of the State University of Campinas. Ajayan is chair of Rice's Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, the Benjamin M. and Mary Greenwood Anderson Professor in Engineering and a professor of chemistry. The Air Force Office of Scientific Research and its Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative funded the research. Video: Story Source: Materials provided by Rice University. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
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